Introduction | Citations | The Bibliography


This page will show you how to reference and cite a range of materials – both printed and electronic. There are many ways of referencing your work. It is best to be consistent and stick to one system. The system used here is the HARVARD SYSTEM.

When you are writing a piece of work it is important to include a detailed list of all the references you have used at the end of an essay or assignment. This not only helps the reader to identify and locate the materials that you have used, it also prevents you committing plagiarism (the copying of someone else’s work or ideas). This list is called a bibliography.

You should also acknowledge any quotations, ideas or conclusions that you have taken from another person’s work in the main body of the essay. This is called a citation.



When you use a particular quote or fact from another person’s work, write the author’s surname and the date of the publication in brackets after it. If you have cited from more than one document in the same year you should follow the date with a lower case letter.

The bibliography at the end of your essay will list the resources you have cited.

"a bit more thinking and planning will immeasurably increase the effectiveness of one's input." (Harvey-Jones, 1998) In a recent study of personality disorders (Williams, 1995) ... Peters (1996a) refers to ...



The Bibliography

In order to help you write your bibliography - remember to record the details of each item as you use it. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically by author surname.

Resource Types:

Printed Resources


The important pieces of information to include are:

Put the surname first, followed by initial(s) or forenames(s).
If the book is edited, put ed(s) after their name(s).
Publication Date
In brackets. You will usually find this information on the back of the title page.
Use the title given on the title page and sub-title (if any).
Capitalise the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns.
Use italics or underline if handwriting.
Only include the edition number if it is not the first
Place of publication and Publisher
To be found on the back of the title page

Mann, J., Truswell, S. (eds.)(1998). Essentials of human nutrition.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Read, P.A. (2000). General principles of English law. 8th ed. London: HLT.



Contribution to a book

If the piece of work comes from a section in a book edited by another author you should include the following information. Use the guidelines given for books unless shown otherwise.

Contributing author(s)
Publication date
Title of article

This should be followed by the word "In" to indicate that the chapter is one part of a book.
Author or editor of publication
Initial(s) of forename(s) followed by surname.
Title of book
Edition if relevant
Place of publication
Page number of contribution
Use pp to show more than one page.

Cartwright, L. (1998). Science and the cinema. In N. Mirzeoff. (ed.) Visual culture reader. London: Routledge, pp 199-213.



Journal Articles

Publication date
Use the year of publication.
Title of article
Use the title given at the beginning of the article.
Title of journal
Give the full title of the journal in italics or underlined.
Volume number and part number
Volume number first followed by part or issue number in brackets – you may not always have both.
Page numbers
If just one page use p.
If more than one page do not put pp (unlike "Contribution to a book").

Batson, C. D. (2000). Altruism: why do we help others? Psychology Review, 7 (1), 2-5.



Newspaper Articles

Publication year, month and date
Title of newspaper
In italics or underlined.
Page number(s)

Chrisafis, A. (2000, November 14). Life in the slow lane. The Guardian, G2. 2-3.

Two or more works by the same author(s)
Where you have used more than one item by an author (or group of authors) they should be listed chronologically.

Two or more works by the same author(s) with the same publication date
Where you have used more than one item by an author (or group of authors) with the same publication date they should be listed in title order and the date followed with the lower case letter a, b, c, …

Bruce, T. (1996a) Helping young children to play. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Bruce, T. (1996b) Tuning into children. London: Hodder and Stoughton



Electronic Resources

No standard method for citing electronic sources of information has yet been agreed upon. However, the following recommendations follow the practices most likely to be adopted.

Internet pages and information taken from CD-ROMs

Publication date
If you cannot find a date put “no date” in brackets.
In italics or underlined.
The medium
E.g. Online or CD-ROM, in square brackets.
Available from:
This refers to the internet address (URL) or publisher.
Date accessed
This should be put in square brackets. This is used because Internet sources are liable to change frequently . It is not necessary to put date accessed for a CD-ROM.

Woodbridge, K. A. (no date) The life of Mary Shelley [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 2000, November 22].
Briggs, A (1999) Queen Victoria. Encarta [CD-ROM]. Available from: Microsoft.



References to personal electronic mail communications (e-mails)

Sender’s e-mail address
In brackets.
Day, month and year.
Subject of e-mail to recipient
In italics or underlined.
Recipient’s name
In brackets.

Bloggs, J. (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.). (22July 2003). The extended family. E-mail to Smith, A. (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).